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The Function `wildcard'
Wildcard expansion happens automatically in rules. But wildcard
expansion does not normally take place when a variable is set, or
inside the arguments of a function. If you want to do wildcard
expansion in such places, you need to use the `wildcard' function, like
This string, used anywhere in a makefile, is replaced by a
space-separated list of names of existing files that match one of the
given file name patterns. If no existing file name matches a pattern,
then that pattern is omitted from the output of the `wildcard'
function. Note that this is different from how unmatched wildcards
behave in rules, where they are used verbatim rather than ignored
(Note: Wildcard Pitfall.).
One use of the `wildcard' function is to get a list of all the C
source files in a directory, like this:
We can change the list of C source files into a list of object files
by replacing the `.o' suffix with `.c' in the result, like this:
$(patsubst %.c,%.o,$(wildcard *.c))
(Here we have used another function, `patsubst'. Note: Functions for
String Substitution and Analysis.)
Thus, a makefile to compile all C source files in the directory and
then link them together could be written as follows:
objects := $(patsubst %.c,%.o,$(wildcard *.c))
foo : $(objects)
cc -o foo $(objects)
(This takes advantage of the implicit rule for compiling C programs, so
there is no need to write explicit rules for compiling the files.
Note: The Two Flavors of Variables, for an explanation of
`:=', which is a variant of `='.)
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