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`gprof' Command Summary
After you have a profile data file `gmon.out', you can run `gprof'
to interpret the information in it. The `gprof' program prints a flat
profile and a call graph on standard output. Typically you would
redirect the output of `gprof' into a file with `>'.
You run `gprof' like this:
gprof OPTIONS [EXECUTABLE-FILE [PROFILE-DATA-FILES...]] [> OUTFILE]
Here square-brackets indicate optional arguments.
If you omit the executable file name, the file `a.out' is used. If
you give no profile data file name, the file `gmon.out' is used. If
any file is not in the proper format, or if the profile data file does
not appear to belong to the executable file, an error message is
You can give more than one profile data file by entering all their
names after the executable file name; then the statistics in all the
data files are summed together.
The following options may be used to selectively include or exclude
functions in the output:
The `-a' option causes `gprof' to suppress the printing of
statically declared (private) functions. (These are functions
whose names are not listed as global, and which are not visible
outside the file/function/block where they were defined.) Time
spent in these functions, calls to/from them, etc, will all be
attributed to the function that was loaded directly before it in
the executable file. This option affects both the flat profile
and the call graph.
The `-e FUNCTION' option tells `gprof' to not print information
about the function FUNCTION_NAME (and its children...) in the call
graph. The function will still be listed as a child of any
functions that call it, but its index number will be shown as
`[not printed]'. More than one `-e' option may be given; only one
FUNCTION_NAME may be indicated with each `-e' option.
The `-E FUNCTION' option works like the `-e' option, but time
spent in the function (and children who were not called from
anywhere else), will not be used to compute the
percentages-of-time for the call graph. More than one `-E' option
may be given; only one FUNCTION_NAME may be indicated with each
The `-f FUNCTION' option causes `gprof' to limit the call graph to
the function FUNCTION_NAME and its children (and their
children...). More than one `-f' option may be given; only one
FUNCTION_NAME may be indicated with each `-f' option.
The `-F FUNCTION' option works like the `-f' option, but only time
spent in the function and its children (and their children...)
will be used to determine total-time and percentages-of-time for
the call graph. More than one `-F' option may be given; only one
FUNCTION_NAME may be indicated with each `-F' option. The `-F'
option overrides the `-E' option.
`-k FROM... TO...'
The `-k' option allows you to delete from the profile any arcs from
routine FROM to routine TO.
The `-v' flag causes `gprof' to print the current version number,
and then exit.
If you give the `-z' option, `gprof' will mention all functions in
the flat profile, even those that were never called, and that had
no time spent in them. This is useful in conjunction with the
`-c' option for discovering which routines were never called.
The order of these options does not matter.
Note that only one function can be specified with each `-e', `-E',
`-f' or `-F' option. To specify more than one function, use multiple
options. For example, this command:
gprof -e boring -f foo -f bar myprogram > gprof.output
lists in the call graph all functions that were reached from either
`foo' or `bar' and were not reachable from `boring'.
There are a few other useful `gprof' options:
If the `-b' option is given, `gprof' doesn't print the verbose
blurbs that try to explain the meaning of all of the fields in the
tables. This is useful if you intend to print out the output, or
are tired of seeing the blurbs.
The `-c' option causes the static call-graph of the program to be
discovered by a heuristic which examines the text space of the
object file. Static-only parents or children are indicated with
call counts of `0'.
The `-d NUM' option specifies debugging options.
The `-s' option causes `gprof' to summarize the information in the
profile data files it read in, and write out a profile data file
called `gmon.sum', which contains all the information from the
profile data files that `gprof' read in. The file `gmon.sum' may
be one of the specified input files; the effect of this is to
merge the data in the other input files into `gmon.sum'. *Note
Eventually you can run `gprof' again without `-s' to analyze the
cumulative data in the file `gmon.sum'.
The `-T' option causes `gprof' to print its output in
"traditional" BSD style.
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