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Incompatibilities of GNU CC

   There are several noteworthy incompatibilities between GNU C and most
existing (non-ANSI) versions of C.  The `-traditional' option
eliminates many of these incompatibilities, *but not all*, by telling
GNU C to behave like the other C compilers.

   * GNU CC normally makes string constants read-only.  If several
     identical-looking string constants are used, GNU CC stores only one
     copy of the string.

     One consequence is that you cannot call `mktemp' with a string
     constant argument.  The function `mktemp' always alters the string
     its argument points to.

     Another consequence is that `sscanf' does not work on some systems
     when passed a string constant as its format control string or
     input.  This is because `sscanf' incorrectly tries to write into
     the string constant.  Likewise `fscanf' and `scanf'.

     The best solution to these problems is to change the program to use
     `char'-array variables with initialization strings for these
     purposes instead of string constants.  But if this is not possible,
     you can use the `-fwritable-strings' flag, which directs GNU CC to
     handle string constants the same way most C compilers do.
     `-traditional' also has this effect, among others.

   * `-2147483648' is positive.

     This is because 2147483648 cannot fit in the type `int', so
     (following the ANSI C rules) its data type is `unsigned long int'.
     Negating this value yields 2147483648 again.

   * GNU CC does not substitute macro arguments when they appear inside
     of string constants.  For example, the following macro in GNU CC

          #define foo(a) "a"

     will produce output `"a"' regardless of what the argument A is.

     The `-traditional' option directs GNU CC to handle such cases
     (among others) in the old-fashioned (non-ANSI) fashion.

   * When you use `setjmp' and `longjmp', the only automatic variables
     guaranteed to remain valid are those declared `volatile'.  This is
     a consequence of automatic register allocation.  Consider this

          jmp_buf j;
          foo ()
            int a, b;
            a = fun1 ();
            if (setjmp (j))
              return a;
            a = fun2 ();
            /* `longjmp (j)' may occur in `fun3'. */
            return a + fun3 ();

     Here `a' may or may not be restored to its first value when the
     `longjmp' occurs.  If `a' is allocated in a register, then its
     first value is restored; otherwise, it keeps the last value stored
     in it.

     If you use the `-W' option with the `-O' option, you will get a
     warning when GNU CC thinks such a problem might be possible.

     The `-traditional' option directs GNU C to put variables in the
     stack by default, rather than in registers, in functions that call
     `setjmp'.  This results in the behavior found in traditional C

   * Programs that use preprocessor directives in the middle of macro
     arguments do not work with GNU CC.  For example, a program like
     this will not work:

          foobar (
          #define luser

     ANSI C does not permit such a construct.  It would make sense to
     support it when `-traditional' is used, but it is too much work to

   * Declarations of external variables and functions within a block
     apply only to the block containing the declaration.  In other
     words, they have the same scope as any other declaration in the
     same place.

     In some other C compilers, a `extern' declaration affects all the
     rest of the file even if it happens within a block.

     The `-traditional' option directs GNU C to treat all `extern'
     declarations as global, like traditional compilers.

   * In traditional C, you can combine `long', etc., with a typedef
     name, as shown here:

          typedef int foo;
          typedef long foo bar;

     In ANSI C, this is not allowed: `long' and other type modifiers
     require an explicit `int'.  Because this criterion is expressed by
     Bison grammar rules rather than C code, the `-traditional' flag
     cannot alter it.

   * PCC allows typedef names to be used as function parameters.  The
     difficulty described immediately above applies here too.

   * PCC allows whitespace in the middle of compound assignment
     operators such as `+='.  GNU CC, following the ANSI standard, does
     not allow this.  The difficulty described immediately above
     applies here too.

   * GNU CC complains about unterminated character constants inside of
     preprocessor conditionals that fail.  Some programs have English
     comments enclosed in conditionals that are guaranteed to fail; if
     these comments contain apostrophes, GNU CC will probably report an
     error.  For example, this code would produce an error:

          #if 0
          You can't expect this to work.

     The best solution to such a problem is to put the text into an
     actual C comment delimited by `/*...*/'.  However, `-traditional'
     suppresses these error messages.

   * Many user programs contain the declaration `long time ();'.  In the
     past, the system header files on many systems did not actually
     declare `time', so it did not matter what type your program
     declared it to return.  But in systems with ANSI C headers, `time'
     is declared to return `time_t', and if that is not the same as
     `long', then `long time ();' is erroneous.

     The solution is to change your program to use `time_t' as the
     return type of `time'.

   * When compiling functions that return `float', PCC converts it to a
     double.  GNU CC actually returns a `float'.  If you are concerned
     with PCC compatibility, you should declare your functions to return
     `double'; you might as well say what you mean.

   * When compiling functions that return structures or unions, GNU CC
     output code normally uses a method different from that used on most
     versions of Unix.  As a result, code compiled with GNU CC cannot
     call a structure-returning function compiled with PCC, and vice

     The method used by GNU CC is as follows: a structure or union
     which is 1, 2, 4 or 8 bytes long is returned like a scalar.  A
     structure or union with any other size is stored into an address
     supplied by the caller (usually in a special, fixed register, but
     on some machines it is passed on the stack).  The
     machine-description macros `STRUCT_VALUE' and
     `STRUCT_INCOMING_VALUE' tell GNU CC where to pass this address.

     By contrast, PCC on most target machines returns structures and
     unions of any size by copying the data into an area of static
     storage, and then returning the address of that storage as if it
     were a pointer value.  The caller must copy the data from that
     memory area to the place where the value is wanted.  GNU CC does
     not use this method because it is slower and nonreentrant.

     On some newer machines, PCC uses a reentrant convention for all
     structure and union returning.  GNU CC on most of these machines
     uses a compatible convention when returning structures and unions
     in memory, but still returns small structures and unions in

     You can tell GNU CC to use a compatible convention for all
     structure and union returning with the option

   * GNU C complains about program fragments such as `0x74ae-0x4000'
     which appear to be two hexadecimal constants separated by the minus
     operator.  Actually, this string is a single "preprocessing token".
     Each such token must correspond to one token in C.  Since this
     does not, GNU C prints an error message.  Although it may appear
     obvious that what is meant is an operator and two values, the ANSI
     C standard specifically requires that this be treated as erroneous.

     A "preprocessing token" is a "preprocessing number" if it begins
     with a digit and is followed by letters, underscores, digits,
     periods and `e+', `e-', `E+', or `E-' character sequences.

     To make the above program fragment valid, place whitespace in
     front of the minus sign.  This whitespace will end the
     preprocessing number.

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